Sport has long considered itself largely able to self-govern, both by sport-specific regulation and with the assistance of various umbrella organisations covering cross-sport and cross-jurisdictional issues: referees are on hand to deal with rule breaches apparent during the course of play; participants can be punished retrospectively for misconduct unnoticed or insufficiently punished during the game; governing bodies administer recognised anti-doping programmes, and sanction those who otherwise contravene the relevant rules of conduct that apply outside the field of play. Only rarely do sports bodies and sportsmen and women find themselves and their conduct examined through the lens of the criminal law.

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